Type 2 diabetes, often associated with obesity, is one of the most rapidly emerging health crises in our community. For many years, the goal in treating type 2 diabetes has been to use medication and lifestyle changes to control this chronic disease. Mild disease has been treated with oral medication while injectable insulin was used for more severe disease. Such conventional therapies were used without any intent to cure the underlying diabetes; rather, the therapeutic goal was to achieve medical control of blood sugar levels. Recently, however, there has been a fundamental advance in our understanding of this widespread disease. New data suggest that the use of metabolic surgery – historically used to treat obesity but now used as an intervention for type 2 diabetes – may result in better control of blood sugar, and even in complete remission of the disease.